The steep increase in the global aged population necessitates the development of a novel diet considering the physical and physiological characteristics of the elderly. The unique problems of aged people include decreased digestion and absorption, dental loss with increasing age, and reduced general muscle reﬂexes involved in swallowing. The intake of whole vegetables and whole grains is often difﬁcult for older people to digest and absorb them, causing discomfort even after meals. Thus, the demand for the development of a Home Meal Replacement (HMR) that can be enhanced absorption of nutrition and enjoyed easily by both the elderly and busy modern people, is high. The modern society has also features the global problem of higher incidence of various liver diseases caused by increased exposure to toxic substances due to smoking, alcohol consumption, and environmental pollution (Marcellin and Kutala, 2018). Liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of major nutrients, energy homeostasis, metabolism of hormones, detoxiﬁcation, and immune or antimicrobial actions. Various drugs based on natural substances have been developed for hepatic diseases. Generally, CCl4- or D-galactosamine-induced liver damage is used as a model for studies on developing hepato-protective or therapeutic drugs. CCl4 treatment leads to the production and activation of reactive intermediates including trichloromethyl radical (CCl3) and its derivative, trichloromethylperoxy radical (CCl3OO), via its metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) in liver microsome (Dai et al., 2014). The generated free radicals cause lipid hyperoxidation by attacking the lipid membranes in the vicinity, induce hepatotoxicity involving necrosis, and promote fatty inﬁltration or reduced microsomal enzyme activity by binding to the macromolecules such as intracellular proteins and lipids. They can change the antioxidant status of the tissues including the release of cytosolic enzymes, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), into the serum, and ultimately mediate apoptosis (Shen et al., 2015). Hence, the removal of ROS is critical in the treatment and prevention of hepatic diseases. Thus, regarding liver damage as the major cause of chronic diseases in modern society, this study aimed to develop a functional meal replacement that can fulﬁll multiple requirements, such as: (a) convenient to use by the elderly and busy modern people, (b) useful in maintaining liver health, and (c) able to prevent and treat hepatic diseases. For this, a Meal Replacement Seeds Juice (MRSJ) was prepared by mixing four types of seeds, which exhibit a diverse nutrients and functionality, with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.), a popular ingredient in meal replacement, and carrots, a widely used ingredient in vegetable juices. The potential of MRSJ in the development of a functional meal replacement was evaluated with an aim to propose a novel form of food intake in the busy and aged modern society.
Received: 30 July 2019/Revised: 30 October 2019/Accepted: 1 November 2019
The aim of the present study was to evaluatethe quality of juice extracted from wheat and barley grass using a twin gear, low speed , household vegetable juicer . The effect of the digestive process on the metabolic activit ies of the WGJ and BGJ s was also assessed by analyzing changes in the antioxida nt and ACE inhibit ion activit ies of the juice during in vitro digesti on . The mean particle size s of the WGJ and BGJ s were 117.7 and 203.1 μm, respectively, thereby confirming the distribution of fine particles. In addition, both the WGJ and BGJ s were rich in nutrients including chlorophyll and protease enzymes, and were especially rich in vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids, which likely contributed to the high antioxidant activit ies of the juices, as indicated by high SOD like and lipid peroxidation in hibition activities . An in vitro digestion model of gastrointestinal and small intestine digestion was used to investigate changes in the metabolic activity of the juice after consumption. Analysis confirmed that both the polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased significantly during gastrointestinal digestion, thereby improving both the reducing power and ABTS radical scaveng ing activity of the juice s , and both the FRAP and ABTS radical scavenging activities were strongly correlated with polyphenol and flavonoid contents (r 2 > Furthermore, ACE inhibiting activit y was greatly increased during gastrointestinal digestion but reduced by small intestine digestion . In conclusion, the present study provides a qualitative description of WGJ and BGJ s and demonstrate s that the physiological activit ies of the juices improve greatly during gastrointestinal and small intestine digestion
J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 48(8), 856～867(2019)
The aim of the present study was to evaluatethe quality of juice extracted from wheat and barley grass using a twin 476 gear, low speed , household vegetable juicer . The effect of the digestive process on the metabolic activit ies of the WGJ 477 and BGJ s was also assessed by analyzing changes in the antioxida nt and ACE inhibit ion activit ies of the juice during in 478 vitro digesti on . The mean particle size s of the WGJ and BGJ s were 117.7 and 203.1 μm, respectively, thereby confirming 479 the distribution of fine particles. In addition, both the WGJ and BGJ s were rich in nutrients including chlorophyll and 480 protease enzymes, and were especially rich in vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids, which likely contributed to the 481 high antioxidant activit ies of the juices, as indicated by high SOD like and lipid peroxidation in hibition activities . An in 482 vitro digestion model of gastrointestinal and small intestine digestion was used to investigate changes in the metabolic 483 activity of the juice after consumption. Analysis confirmed that both the polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased 484 significantly during gastrointestinal digestion, thereby improving both the reducing power and ABTS radical scaveng ing 485 activity of the juice s , and both the FRAP and ABTS radical scavenging activities were strongly correlated with 486 polyphenol and flavonoid contents (r 2 > Furthermore, ACE inhibiting activit y was greatly increased during 487 gastrointestinal digestion but reduced by small intestine digestion . In conclusion, the present study provides a qualitative 488 description of WGJ and BGJ s and demonstrate s that the physiological activit ies of the juices improve greatly during 489 gastrointestinal and small intestine digestion
J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 1 48(8), 856~867(2019)
This study was performed to compare the quality characteristics of carrot juice prepared via 499 centrifugation, single gear and twin gear method s . The fresh juice quality was assessed by measuring 500 extraction yield , nutrition al components , and cloud stability. T he t win gear extraction method showed 501 the highest extraction yield and the carrot juice mineral content was highest in carrot juice prepared 502 by twin gear extraction, which was the only method to obtain more β carotene than the recommended 503 daily intake from 100 g of carrot. Furthermore, t win gear extraction showed the smallest particle size 504 in the resulting carrot juice, followed by single gear extraction and centrifugation. Therefore, twin 505 gear extraction was selected as an opti mal method and changes in the antioxidant and metabolic 506 activity of the prepared carrot juice were investigated. The carrot juice showed a higher inhibition 507 rate of lipid peroxidation than did α tocopherol and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) 508 inhibitory activity was increased via gastrointestinal and intestinal digestion.
KOREAN J. FOOD SCI. TECHNOL. Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 369~378 (2019)
We investigated the quality characteristics of angelica, kale, and water dropwort juices with respect to theextraction methods, and subsequent changes in the biological activity as influenced by the digestion process. First,three extraction methods commonly used in households—centrifugation, single gear, and twin gear methods—were used to investigate the quality characteristics of the extracted juices. Juice quality characteristics wereevaluated based on the extraction rate and nutrient analysis, which revealed that the twin gear extraction methodhad the highest extraction rate for the three vegetables studied. The extraction efficiency and nutrient availabilitywas calculated. The highest nutrient levels were found in juice extracted using the twin gear method. Therefore,the twin gear extraction method is the optimal method. Lipid peroxidation inhibition and digestive enzyme activityof the extracted juices were also investigated. Angelica, kale, and water dropwort juices showed high lipidperoxidation inhibitory activity, indicating excellent anti-oxidative activity. Further, the digestive enzymes in angelica, kale, and water dropwort juice were studied. Low overall α-amylase activity was observed in all juices.Kale juice contained high levels of protease, which could help in the digestion of kale juice. Changes in biologicalactivity after consumption of the extracted juices was investigated using the in vitro digestion model to mimic thedigestion process. The results revealed an increase in total polyphenolic content as the digestion progressed,showing not only anti-oxidative activity, such as ABTS radical scavenging ability and reducing power, but alsoACE inhibitory activity, which increased significantly during the stomach digestion process. These results alsoindicate the quality characteristics and anti-oxidative potential of angelica, kale, and water dropwort juices.Furthermore, these findings provide opportunities to enhance the biological activities of these juices when theyundergo digestion, resulting in some structural changes, and the ensuing hydrolysis of key components.
J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 48(7), 718～727(2019)
Commonly consumed fruit juices possess low inhibitory activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), which plays central role in elevation of blood pressure. The ACE inhibitory activity of fruit–seed mixed juice may be improved via synergistic interactions. In this study, the investigated synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects of fruit–seed combination on ACE inhibition were investigated. Thirteen fruits and 15 seeds including legumes, nuts, and cereals were combined in pairs; pear-hemp seed-pumpkin seed juice (3-mixed juice) displayed the highest ACE inhibition resulting from synergistic interactions. Additionally, nitric oxide production in human endothelial cells was promoted by 3-mixed juice. Three-mixed juice showed antioxidant activities such as DNA protective, DPPH radical scavenging, and reducing effects. These results suggested that combinations of different food categories are beneficial for improving biological functions such as vascular health. Three-mixed juice, which shows high ACE inhibitory activity, may be useful as an anti-hypertensive agent and for treating hypertension.
Food Science and Biotechnology / November 2018
The sesame seed juice contained abundant nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids. The contents of minerals, vitamin B1 and B3, and sesamol increased with increase in roasting temperature; however, the levels of fatty acids, vitamin B2, sesamin, and sesamolin decreased. In addition, the antioxidant content and antioxidative activities of sesame seed juice increased with increase in roasting temperature. Therefore, these results suggest that roasted sesame seed juice possesses high antioxidative activities, which may be beneficial for preventing oxidative damage in the body.
Food Science and Biotechnology / 2017
To investigate the synergistic and combined effects of a seed–vegetable combination, oilseed crops (safflower seed, evening primrose seed, and sesame seed) and cereals (whole buckwheat grain) were extracted with carrot using a low-speed juice extractor. Nutrient composition showed that the mixed seeds juice provided a well-balanced diet to supplement nutrient deficiency. Four assays of antioxidant activities showed that all seed juices exhibited higher activities than carrot juice. Similarly, mixed seeds juice displayed the highest α-amylase and protease activities, implicating the formulation in the improvement of the relatively low digestibility of seed.
Food Science and Biotechnology / 2017