This study aimed to compare the quality characteristics of pomegranate juice based on the extraction methods applied: centrifugal, single-gear, and twin-gear. Changes in the metabolic activities during digestion condition were further investigated. The twin-gear method was eventually identified as the optimal method, through comprehensive evaluation of the extraction rate, particle size, proximate composition, and the mineral and vitamin contents. Pomegranate juice derived using the twin-gear method had high-levels of bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and selenium. Consequently, this juice exerted significant inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. Phenolic compounds are known to exhibit a high-correlation with skin-lightening, anti-aging, and anti-diabetic activities. An in vitro digestion model was used to evaluate changes in the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Compared to levels observed before digestion, the results revealed a marked increase in the 2,2′- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and superoxide dismutase-like activities as digestion progressed through the gastric phase condition, whereas most of these effects were stabilized or inhibited as digestion progressed through the intestinal phase. The ACE inhibitory activity was observed to increase after being subjected to gastric and intestinal digestion conditions. The correlation coefficients (r2) for ACE inhibition and antioxidant activities were in the range 0.681∼0.952, thus indicating a highly positive correlation. The findings of this study indicate that the bioactivity of pomegranate juice is enhanced, as determined by the increase in various physiological activities as well as increase in the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of bioactive substances during digestion.
한국식품영양과학회지 50: 136-148(2021)
This study proposes the processing method that could maximize the functional properties of evening primrose seeds (EPS) and its various nutritional components. EPS can be prepared by different methods, such as being left raw, roasting, steaming, and powdering. Processing of EPS to create EPS powder (EPSP) resulted in higher levels of vitamin E, fatty acids, total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activity, compared with the other processing methods. Also, EPSP maintained lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity for 49 days. In particular, the EPSP ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction exhibited high antioxidant, antidiabetic, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities. The EPSP ethyl acetate fraction showed a high cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced cell damage in both RAW264.7 and EA.hy926 cells. In addition, the EtOAc fraction showed anti-inflammatory activity by the inhibitory activity of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells, and antihypertensive activity by the activity of NO in EA.hy926 cells. These results suggest that EPSP could be useful as a food ingredient that assists the prevention of various diseases caused by oxidative stress.
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science 25: 422-431(2020)
Oat seed juice was prepared with carrots, safflower seeds, evening primrose seeds, whole buckwheat, sesame, and oats, which was the main ingredient and has various functions. The potential of this juice as a novel functional meal replacement was assessed. The final amount of oats added was 60 g based on the combined results of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and β-glucan content. Nutrient and mineral content analysis revealed higher contents in naked oat seed juice, whereas vitamin analysis indicated higher levels in hulled oat seed juice. Both hulled and naked oat seed juices showed high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities. Anti-skin aging and anti-diabetic activities were also observed, as indicated by high correlations with TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging, and ABTS radical scavenging activities. To investigate changes in these activities according to the consumption of oat seed juice, an in vitro digestion model was used. The results show significant increases in TPC and TFC antioxidant contents after digestion. ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and superoxide dismutase-like activity significantly increased after digestion. Therefore, this study confirms the excellent quality characteristics and increased active ingredient contents of oat seed juice based on evaluation of an in vitro digestion process.
한국식품영양과학회지 49: 1105-1114(2020)
This study was conducted to investigate both plant growth-promoting and plant disease- controlling activities of bacterial strains isolated from soil. All the isolated strains were able to grow at various temperatures. All the strains, except ANG40, showed antagonistic effects against various phytopathogenic fungi. This antagonism can be ascribed to the production of siderophores and antibiotic substances. In addition, all the strains showed abilities such as nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. These results suggest that nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron can be converted into forms that can be easily absorbed by the plants for their growth. Analysis of the growth-promoting properties revealed that ANG51 produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) both of which are related to ethylene production. In contrast, the other strains were found to have only IAA-producing ability. Therefore, this study suggests that Pseudomonas geniculata ANG3, Exiguobacterium acetylicum ANG40, and Burkholderia stabilis ANG51, which were selected through analysis of comparative advantages for both plant growth promotion and disease-controlling activity, may be used as biological agents.
Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. (2020), 48(1), 38–47
This study was carried out to examine the antagonistic effect against phytopathogenic fungi of isolated strains from soil samples collected from Busan, Changwon, and Jeju Island: Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Corynespora cassiicola, Fusarium sp., Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora capsici, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. According to results of our studies, isolated strains showed an antagonistic effect against phytopathogenic fungi. Such an antagonistic effect against phytopathogenic fungi is seen due to the production of siderophores, antibiotic substances, and extracellular amylase, cellulase, protease, and xylanase enzyme activities. Extracellular enzymes produced by isolated strains were significant, given that they inhibited the growth of phytopathogenic fungi by causing bacteriolysis of the cell wall of plant pathogenic fungi. This is essential to break down the cell wall of plant pathogenic fungi and thus help plant growth by converting macromolecules, which cannot be used by the plant for growth, into small molecules. In addition, they are putative candidates as biological agents to promote plant growth and inhibit growth of phytopathogenic fungi through nitrogen fixation, indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production, and extracellular enzyme activity. Therefore, this study suggests the possibility of using Bacillus subtilis ANGa5, Bacillus aerius ANGa25, and Bacillus methylotrophicus ANGa27 as new biological agents, and it is considered that further studies are necessary to prove their effect as novel biological agents by standardization of formulation and optimization of selected effective microorganisms, determination of their preservation period, and crop cultivation tests.
Microbiol. Biotechnol. Lett. (2019), 47(4), 603–613
The steep increase in the global aged population necessitates the development of a novel diet considering the physical and physiological characteristics of the elderly. The unique problems of aged people include decreased digestion and absorption, dental loss with increasing age, and reduced general muscle reﬂexes involved in swallowing. The intake of whole vegetables and whole grains is often difﬁcult for older people to digest and absorb them, causing discomfort even after meals. Thus, the demand for the development of a Home Meal Replacement (HMR) that can be enhanced absorption of nutrition and enjoyed easily by both the elderly and busy modern people, is high. The modern society has also features the global problem of higher incidence of various liver diseases caused by increased exposure to toxic substances due to smoking, alcohol consumption, and environmental pollution (Marcellin and Kutala, 2018). Liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of major nutrients, energy homeostasis, metabolism of hormones, detoxiﬁcation, and immune or antimicrobial actions. Various drugs based on natural substances have been developed for hepatic diseases. Generally, CCl4- or D-galactosamine-induced liver damage is used as a model for studies on developing hepato-protective or therapeutic drugs. CCl4 treatment leads to the production and activation of reactive intermediates including trichloromethyl radical (CCl3) and its derivative, trichloromethylperoxy radical (CCl3OO), via its metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) in liver microsome (Dai et al., 2014). The generated free radicals cause lipid hyperoxidation by attacking the lipid membranes in the vicinity, induce hepatotoxicity involving necrosis, and promote fatty inﬁltration or reduced microsomal enzyme activity by binding to the macromolecules such as intracellular proteins and lipids. They can change the antioxidant status of the tissues including the release of cytosolic enzymes, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), into the serum, and ultimately mediate apoptosis (Shen et al., 2015). Hence, the removal of ROS is critical in the treatment and prevention of hepatic diseases. Thus, regarding liver damage as the major cause of chronic diseases in modern society, this study aimed to develop a functional meal replacement that can fulﬁll multiple requirements, such as: (a) convenient to use by the elderly and busy modern people, (b) useful in maintaining liver health, and (c) able to prevent and treat hepatic diseases. For this, a Meal Replacement Seeds Juice (MRSJ) was prepared by mixing four types of seeds, which exhibit a diverse nutrients and functionality, with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.), a popular ingredient in meal replacement, and carrots, a widely used ingredient in vegetable juices. The potential of MRSJ in the development of a functional meal replacement was evaluated with an aim to propose a novel form of food intake in the busy and aged modern society.
Food Science and Biotechnology(2019)
The aim of the present study was to evaluatethe quality of juice extracted from wheat and barley grass using a twin gear, low speed , household vegetable juicer . The effect of the digestive process on the metabolic activit ies of the WGJ and BGJ s was also assessed by analyzing changes in the antioxida nt and ACE inhibit ion activit ies of the juice during in vitro digesti on . The mean particle size s of the WGJ and BGJ s were 117.7 and 203.1 μm, respectively, thereby confirming the distribution of fine particles. In addition, both the WGJ and BGJ s were rich in nutrients including chlorophyll and protease enzymes, and were especially rich in vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids, which likely contributed to the high antioxidant activit ies of the juices, as indicated by high SOD like and lipid peroxidation in hibition activities . An in vitro digestion model of gastrointestinal and small intestine digestion was used to investigate changes in the metabolic activity of the juice after consumption. Analysis confirmed that both the polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased significantly during gastrointestinal digestion, thereby improving both the reducing power and ABTS radical scaveng ing activity of the juice s , and both the FRAP and ABTS radical scavenging activities were strongly correlated with polyphenol and flavonoid contents (r 2 > Furthermore, ACE inhibiting activit y was greatly increased during gastrointestinal digestion but reduced by small intestine digestion . In conclusion, the present study provides a qualitative description of WGJ and BGJ s and demonstrate s that the physiological activit ies of the juices improve greatly during gastrointestinal and small intestine digestion
J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 48(8), 856～867(2019)
The aim of the present study was to evaluatethe quality of juice extracted from wheat and barley grass using a twin 476 gear, low speed , household vegetable juicer . The effect of the digestive process on the metabolic activit ies of the WGJ 477 and BGJ s was also assessed by analyzing changes in the antioxida nt and ACE inhibit ion activit ies of the juice during in 478 vitro digesti on . The mean particle size s of the WGJ and BGJ s were 117.7 and 203.1 μm, respectively, thereby confirming 479 the distribution of fine particles. In addition, both the WGJ and BGJ s were rich in nutrients including chlorophyll and 480 protease enzymes, and were especially rich in vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids, which likely contributed to the 481 high antioxidant activit ies of the juices, as indicated by high SOD like and lipid peroxidation in hibition activities . An in 482 vitro digestion model of gastrointestinal and small intestine digestion was used to investigate changes in the metabolic 483 activity of the juice after consumption. Analysis confirmed that both the polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased 484 significantly during gastrointestinal digestion, thereby improving both the reducing power and ABTS radical scaveng ing 485 activity of the juice s , and both the FRAP and ABTS radical scavenging activities were strongly correlated with 486 polyphenol and flavonoid contents (r 2 > Furthermore, ACE inhibiting activit y was greatly increased during 487 gastrointestinal digestion but reduced by small intestine digestion . In conclusion, the present study provides a qualitative 488 description of WGJ and BGJ s and demonstrate s that the physiological activit ies of the juices improve greatly during 489 gastrointestinal and small intestine digestion
J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 1 48(8), 856~867(2019)
This study was performed to compare the quality characteristics of carrot juice prepared via 499 centrifugation, single gear and twin gear method s . The fresh juice quality was assessed by measuring 500 extraction yield , nutrition al components , and cloud stability. T he t win gear extraction method showed 501 the highest extraction yield and the carrot juice mineral content was highest in carrot juice prepared 502 by twin gear extraction, which was the only method to obtain more β carotene than the recommended 503 daily intake from 100 g of carrot. Furthermore, t win gear extraction showed the smallest particle size 504 in the resulting carrot juice, followed by single gear extraction and centrifugation. Therefore, twin 505 gear extraction was selected as an opti mal method and changes in the antioxidant and metabolic 506 activity of the prepared carrot juice were investigated. The carrot juice showed a higher inhibition 507 rate of lipid peroxidation than did α tocopherol and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) 508 inhibitory activity was increased via gastrointestinal and intestinal digestion.
KOREAN J. FOOD SCI. TECHNOL. Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 369~378 (2019)
We investigated the quality characteristics of angelica, kale, and water dropwort juices with respect to theextraction methods, and subsequent changes in the biological activity as influenced by the digestion process. First,three extraction methods commonly used in households—centrifugation, single gear, and twin gear methods—were used to investigate the quality characteristics of the extracted juices. Juice quality characteristics wereevaluated based on the extraction rate and nutrient analysis, which revealed that the twin gear extraction methodhad the highest extraction rate for the three vegetables studied. The extraction efficiency and nutrient availabilitywas calculated. The highest nutrient levels were found in juice extracted using the twin gear method. Therefore,the twin gear extraction method is the optimal method. Lipid peroxidation inhibition and digestive enzyme activityof the extracted juices were also investigated. Angelica, kale, and water dropwort juices showed high lipidperoxidation inhibitory activity, indicating excellent anti-oxidative activity. Further, the digestive enzymes in angelica, kale, and water dropwort juice were studied. Low overall α-amylase activity was observed in all juices.Kale juice contained high levels of protease, which could help in the digestion of kale juice. Changes in biologicalactivity after consumption of the extracted juices was investigated using the in vitro digestion model to mimic thedigestion process. The results revealed an increase in total polyphenolic content as the digestion progressed,showing not only anti-oxidative activity, such as ABTS radical scavenging ability and reducing power, but alsoACE inhibitory activity, which increased significantly during the stomach digestion process. These results alsoindicate the quality characteristics and anti-oxidative potential of angelica, kale, and water dropwort juices.Furthermore, these findings provide opportunities to enhance the biological activities of these juices when theyundergo digestion, resulting in some structural changes, and the ensuing hydrolysis of key components.
J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 48(7), 718～727(2019)